Comprehensive List of Ancient Egyptian Kings

edited by P. A. Piccione


Dynasty 0 (Terminal Nagada): 3250-3050

About 9-13 kings ruling from Hierakonpolis in Upper Egypt. The last four have identifiable (although not always legible) names:
. . . .
Horus "Scorpion"
Horus Zekhen?/Ka?first king buried at Abydos
Horus RoAbydos tomb B 1+2
Horus Narmer"Catfish"


Dynasty I: 3050-2857

Horus AhaMeni3050-3016
Horus DjerIti3016-2970
Horus WadjiIterti?2970-2963
Horus DewenKhasti/Zemti?2963-2949
Horus AndjibMerpibia?2949-2897
Horus SemerkhetIri-Nebti2897-2889
Horus Qa'aQa'a-Nebti2889-2859
Horus Ba?(sequence uncertain)
Horus Seneferka(sequence uncertain)2859-2857
Horus [. . .](sequence uncertain)

Dynasty II: 2857-2705

Horus HetepsekhemwyHetep-Nebty2857-
Horus Nebre-2815
Horus NinetjerNinetjer-Nebty2815-2778
Horus Weneg?Weneg-Nebty2778-2772
Seth Peribsen2751-2743
Horus Sekhemib(-perenma'at)2743-2732
Horus Khasekhem(= same person as the next king)
Horus-Seth Khasekhemwy(-hetep-netjerwyimef)2732-2705


Dynasty III: 2705-2630

Horus Nekhtza (Za)Nebka I2705-2687
Horus Netjerikhet(Djoser)2687-2667
Horus Sekhemkhet(Djeser-Teti)2667-2660
Horus Khaba2660-2654
Horus Qahedjet Huni2654-2630

Dynasty IV: 2630-2524

Nebka II2550-2548

Dynasty V: 2524 2400

Neferirkare I Kakai2505-2495
Shepseskare Izi?2495-2488
Niuserre Ini2477-2466
Menkauhor Ikauhor2466-2458
Djedkare Izezi2458-2430

Dynasty VI: 2400-2250?

Pepi I2390-
Pepi I(again!)2382-2361
Mernere I Nemtyemzaf2361-2355
Pepi II2355-2261
Mernere II Nemtyemzaf2261-2260
Queen Nitocris2260-2250?

Dynasty VII: 2250?-2230

A group of 10 kings are recorded in the Abydos kinglist but are omitted in the Turin Canon of Kings (a Netjerkare [Abydos] = Neitiqerti [Turin]). Contemporary sources record the prenomens: Neferkare II . . . . . Sekhemkare . . . . . Wadjkare (sequence of rule uncertain).

Dynasty VIII: 2230-2213

Six kings, the last 4 of which are known from contemporary sources:
. . . .
Qakare Ibi2222-2220
Neferkaure(= Imhotep?)2220-2216
Neferkauhor Kapuibi(= Iti?)2216-2214
Neferirkare II2214-2213

The attribution of the nomens Imhotep and Iti (from graffiti in the Wadi Hammamat) is very uncertain. Neferkaure is generally identified with Horus Kha[bau?] and Neferirkare II with Horus Demedjibtawy of the Coptus Decrees, but this is uncertain. Horus Netjeribau definitely is Neferkauhor.


Dynasty IX: 2213-ca. 2175

Four kings who ruled at Heracleopolis and were vaguely recognized throughout Egypt. Their sequence is not clear:

Meryibre Akhtoy(= the first or second king?)2213-
. . . .
Neferkare V(= the third king)ca. 2185-
. . . .-2175

Dynasty X: ca. 2175-ca. 2035

Fourteen Heracleopolitans who ruled the north and fought the Thebans of contemporary Dynasty XI until defeated by Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II between 2047 and 2022. Six kings are attested in contemporary sources:

. . . . ca. 2175
Nebkaure Akhtoy(father of Merikare?)
Merikare(contemporary with latterca. 2075
part of reign of Wahankh Inyotef I)

These others cannot be dated even approximately:

Meri[. . .]re Akhtoy(different from "Merihathor" and founder of Dynasty X)
Wahkare Akhtoy
Khui(on a fragment from Dara)
Iytjenu (part of a Dyn. X personal name from Saqqara)

Dynasty XI: 2134-1991

In many traditional chronologies, Theban Dynasty XI is included in the Middle Kingdom, not the First Intermediate Period. However, in recent times this notion has been revised among certain Egyptologists. The dynasty existed about 143 years, of which 99 years were spent in a state of civil war with the kingdom divided and only 44 years with the kindom united in relative peace. Importantly, those final 44 years were a period of political consolidation and nation-building, which only came to fruition at the beginning of Dynasty XII. It is unjustifiable then to consider Dynasty XI as the start of the Middle Kingdom.

Horus Tepi-'oMentuhotep I2134-
Horus SehertawyInyotef I-2118
Horus WahankhInyotef II2118-2069
Horus NekhtnebtepneferInyotef III2069-2061
Horus Sankhibtawy
Horus Daikhasut}Mentuhotep II
Horus Nebhedjet} Nebhepetre2061-2010
Horus Sematawy
SankhkareMentuhotep III2010-1998
Qakare Inyotef IV(sequence uncertain)
Iyibre-Khent(sequence uncertain)
NebtawyreMentuhotep IV-1991


Dynasty XII: 1991-1784

Amenemhat I1991-1962
Senwosret I 1971-1928
Amenemhat II1929-1895
Senwosret II1897-1878
Senwosret III1878-1842
Amenemhat III1842-1794
Amenemhat IV1797-1788
Queen Sebeknefru1788-1784

Dynasty XIII: 1784-1668

At least 65 kings who ruled over all of Egypt for 116 years until about 1720 when they lost the Delta to invading Asiatics. The political capital was at Itjy-tawy, and the dynasty was recognized in the far south as late as ca. 1675. Only Neferhotep I, his son Sihathor and Neferhotep's brother, Sebekhotep IV, were related by blood. Some kings were of lower-class or even foreign origin. Only kings attested in contemporary records are listed here.

Khutawyre Wegaf 1784-1782
Sekhemkare Amenemhat-sunebef1782-
Sekhemkare Amenemhat V1772-1770
Sankhibre Ameni-Inyotef Amenemhat VI1769-
Hetepibre Qemau-si-Harnedj-heryotef
[. . .] Ameni-Qemau
[. . .] Khuyoqer
Kha'ankhre Sebekhotep I-1764
Awybre Hor I1764-
Sedjefakare Kay Amenemhat VII
Sekhemre-khutawy Sebekhotep II
Nimaatre-khaenre Khendjer(Asiatic King "Pig")
Smenekhkare Mermesha
Nerkare [. . .]-1754
Sekhemre-sewadjtawy Sebekhotep III1754-1751
Khasekhemre Neferhotep I1751-1740
Khakare? Sihathor1740
Khaneferre Sebekhotep IV1740-1730
Wahibre Ibya1725-1714
Merneferre Iy("Ay")1714-1700
Merhetepre Sebekhotep VI1700-1698
Mersekhemre Neferhotep II1698-
Merkaure Sebekhotep VII1693-

The following kings probably date to the last 25 years of Dynasty XIII. Their sequence is uncertain:

Seneferibre Senwosret IV
Merankhrek Mentuhotep V
Djedankhre Mentuemsaf
Djedneferre (Dedumose?)
Sewahenre Senebmiu
Sekhemre-sankhtawy Neferhotep III
Sekhemre-seusertawy Sebekhotep VIII
Mershepesre Ini
[. . .] Mentuwoser
Menkhaure Sena'aib
Sekhemre-neferkhau Wepwawetemsaf


Dynasty XIV: 1720-1665

Perhaps as many as 76 kings who ruled in Xois in the Delta. Only one is attested in contemporary sources. He reigned less than one year and left his name on two monuments at Avaris in the Delta:

Nehesica. 1720

The other kings names are recorded in subsequent Egyptian lists. Reliable dates cannot be established for them. Was Dynasty XIV a catch-all for a number of small Delta principalities?

NebdjefareSemen[...]re[...]kare Hap[...]
WebenreDjed[...]re[...]kare [...]nat
[...]djefareSenefer[...]re[...]kare Bebenmi
SankhibreApedMare Sebekhotep IX

Dynasty XV: 1668-1560

The Hyksos--invaders of apparent North Syrian origin and arriving from Palestine--established their capital at Avaris and maintained direct rule over much of northern Egypt and loose suzerainty over Asiatic and Egyptian vassals (including the Thebans of most of Dynasty XVII) in the rest of the country. Earlier rulers identified in later lists and undatable scarabs include:

Sekhaenre Shalik= Salitis
Maibre Sheshy= Beon
Meruserenre Yacobher= Apakhnas

The following Hyksos rulers are attested on contemporary monuments:

Seweserenre KhayanIannas1630-1610
Aaqenenre (early)} Apopi1610-1569
Aauserre (later)
Nebkhepeshre(same as previous king?)

Dynasty XVI: 1665-1565

Hyksos vassals in Lower and Middle Egypt concurrent with Dynasties XV and XVII. All contemporary attestations are on scarabs; none can be dated precisely. Some bear Egyptian names; many have clearly Semitic names:

SaketAahetepreSeneferankhre Apopi

Dynasty XVII: 1668-1570

Current usage restricts this dynasty to the Theban contemporaries of the Hyksos (Manetho included other Hyksos vassals). They ruled as far as Abydos and had extended their domain to Cusae under Ta 'o II, then to the head of the Delta under Kamose. Almost all are attested in contemporary sources:

Nubkheperre Inyotef V1668-1663
Sekhemre-wahkhau Rahotep1663-1660
Sekhemre-wadjkhau Sebekemsaf I1660-1644
Sekhemre-sementawy Djehuti1644-1643
Sankhenre Mentuhotep VI1643-1642
Sewadjenre Nebiryerau I 1642-1623
Neferkare Nebiryerau II1623
Seweserenre Senwosret V1622-1610
Sekhemre-shedtawy Sebekemsaf II1610-1601
Sekhemre-wepma'at Inyotef VI1601-1596
Sekhemre-herherma'at Inyotef VII1596
Senakhtenre Ahmose1596-1591
Seqenenre Ta'o (Djehuti'o)1591-1576
Wadjkheperre Kamose1576-1570


Dynasty XVIII: 1570-1293

Nebpehtyre Ahmose I1570-1546
Djeserkare Amenhotep I1551-1524
AakheperkareTuthmosis I 1524-1518
Aakheperenre Tuthmosis II1518-1504
Menkheperre Tuthmosis III1504-1450
Maatkare Hatshepsut (Queen)1503/1498-1483
Aakheperure Amenhotep II1453-1419
Menkheperure Tuthmosis IV1419-1386
Nebmaatre Amenhotep III1386-1349
Neferkheperure Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten1350-1334
Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare1336-1334
Nebkheperure Tutankhaten/Tutankhamun1334-1325
Kheperkheperure Ay1325-1321
Djeserkheperure Horemheb1321-1293

Dynasty XIX: 1293-1185

Ramesses I1293-1291
Seti I1291-1279
Ramesses II1279-1212
Seti II1199-1193
Tawosret (Queen)1193-1185

Dynasty XX: 1185-1070

Ramesses III1182-1151
Ramesses IV1151-1145
Ramesses V(Amenherkhepeshef)1145-1141
Ramesses VI(Amenherkhepeshef)1141-1134
Ramesses VII(Setherkhepshef)1134 1133
Ramesses VIII(Amenyotef)1133-1126
Ramesses IX(Khaemwese)1126-1108
Ramesses X(Amenherkhepeshef)1108-1098
Ramesses XI(Khaemwese)1098-1070
Era of "Repeating of Births"1080-1070


Dynasty XXI: 1070-946

(a) Kings in Tanis:

Neferkare Amenemnisu1044-1040
Psusennes I1040-992
Aakheperre Osochor985-979
Psusennes II(see also below)960-946

(b) Rulers in Thebes (HP = High Priest of Amun; K = King):

Pinodjem IHP1070-1055
Smendes IHP993-991
Pinodjem IIHP991-970
Psusennes(later he is a kingHP970-946
in Tanis = Psusennes II)K960-946

Dynasty XXII: 946-712

Libyan kings ruling in Tanis and Bubastis, recognized in all of Egypt until 828, when a rival Libyan dynasty arose in Thebes. In 814 another rival dynasty arose in Leontopolis in the Delta. Dynasty XXII was still recognized in Memphis and parts of the Delta until 735 and intermittently in Thebes until 787/783.

Shoshenq I946-916
Osorkon I916-904
Shoshenq II904
Takelot I904-890
Osorkon II890-860
Takelot II860-835
Shoshenq III835-783
Aakheperre Shoshenq V773-735
Aakheperre Osorkon IV735-712

High Priests of Amun at Thebes

In a unique power-sharing arrangement between the royal government and the temple hierarchy, the High Priests of Amun were often appointed from among the royal princes of Dynasties XXI and XXII (until the Thebans established their own Dynasty XXIII in 828). The high priests were the virtual rulers of Thebes, usually autonomous of the royal government in the Delta. While many high priests took on the outward trappings of kingship, most apparently recognized the Egyptian king as a nominal overlord; (n.b., "s." = "son of"):

Yuput (s. Shoshenq I)HP946-910
Shoshenq (s. Osorkon I)HP910-905
Ewelot (s. Osorkon I)HP905-898
Smendes II (s. Osorkon I)HP898-885
Harsiese I (s. HP Shoshenq)HP885-875
[. . .di. . .] (s. HP/K Harsie)HP875-870
Nimlot (s. Osorkon II)HP870-862
Takelot (s. HP Nimlot) -HP862-850
Osorkon (s. Takelot II)HP850-835
Harsiese II (s. [. . .di. . .]?)HP835-816
Osorkon(again; intermittently at
Thebes; permanently at El Hiba)HP816-797/87

Dynasty XXIII (Thebes): 828-765?

In its earlier years, this dynasty held Thebes only intermittently and presumably had a safer headquarters to the south; after 787, Dynasty XXII is no longer attested at Thebes. See HP, below, for details. By the time of Osorkon III, this dynasty ruled as far north as Heracleopolis.

Pedubast I828-803
Userma'atre-Miamon Shoshenq IV803-797
Osorkon III797-767
Takelot III(formerly HP)771-767

The High Priests of Amun of this dynasty were:

Harsiese II(again)HP811-808
Takelot II(same as next priest?)HP807-797
Takelot III (s. Osorkon III)(perhaps intermittentlyHP797/787-774
until death of HP Osorkon)

Dynasty XXIII (Leontopolis): 814-730?

Yuput I 814-790?
. . . .(several rulers?)790?-735
Yuput IIca. 735

Dynasty XXIII (Hermopolis): 760-665?

Nimlot(more than one by this name?)735-665
Pedenemty(attribution is uncertain)

Dynasty XXIII (Heracleopolis): 740-665?

"Nakhke"(recorded in Akkadian texts only)ca. 670

Dynasty XXIII (Tanis): 710?-665?

This is Manetho's Dynasty XXIII, which rules at Tanis between the end of Dynasty XXII and the rise of Dynasty XXVI under Psammetichus I. The following kings attested archaeologically at Tanis seem to belong to this group (sequence unknown):

Sekhemkare [. . .]
Shepseskare-Irnere Gemnefkhonsubak
Neferkare-Pepi [. . .]
Sehetepib(en)re Pedubast IIca. 665

Dynasty XXV (Kushite Era): 767-656

Nubian kings from Kush contemporary with (and more or less effective overlords of) the petty kings of Dynasties XXII-XXIV. Manetho includes only those who were recognized in Memphis; we add those who were recognized in Thebes. Kashta's rule in Nubia might have begun earlier, and that of Tanwetamani ended later than the dates indicated here.

Piye(formerly called "Piankhy")753-713
Shebitku 698?-698
1st Assyrian invasion671
2nd Assyrian invasion663

Dynasty XXIV: ca. 760-685

A Libyan dynasty of "Great Chiefs of the West" (abbr. GCW), some of whom assumed the title of "King" (abbr. K); contemporary with Kushite Dynasty XXV. After considerable vicissitudes (including falling to the Kushites), members of this family finally managed (with Assyrian help) to displace the Nubians as rulers of Egypt and develop into Dynasty XXVI:

OsorkonGCWca. 760-740
Tefnakhte IGCW740-718
Tefnakhte IIGCW (later king--see below)712-685


Dynasty XXVI (Saite Era): 685-525

Tefnakhte II685-678
Necho Ikilled by Tanwetamani672-664
Psammetichus I664-610
Assyrians abandon Egypt653
Necho II610-595
Psammetichus II595-589
Ahmose II("Amasis")570-526
Psammetichus III526-525

Dynasty XXVII (First Persian Domination): 525-332

Egypt was first invaded by the Persians in this period and became a satrapy of the great Persian Empire.

Cambyses II525-522
Darius I522-486
Egyptian revolt:
Seheribre Pedubast III522-520
Xerxes I486-465
Artaxerxes I465-424
Darius II424-405
Artaxerxes II405-359

Certain Egyptian kings ruled sporadically in revolt during this period; dates uncertain:

In Marea (West of Alexandria):

Psammetichus IV
Inaros(rebel aqainst Artaxerxes I)ca 465?-454
Thanyras (s. Inaros)after 448
Psammetichus V(perhaps from this region)ca. 445
Psammetichus VIca. 400?

In Sais:

Amyrtaios I(joined Inaros)ca.465-448
Pausiris (s. Amyrtaios I)after 448

Dynasty XXVIII: 405-399

In this period the Persians were first expelled from Egypt .

Amyrtaios II (s. Pausiris)405-399

Dynasty XXIX: 399-380

Nepherites I399-393
Nepherites II380

Dynasty XXX: 380-343

Nectanebo I381-362
Teos (s. Nectanebo I)3-year coregency with father365-361
Nectanebo II361-343

Dynasty XXXI (Second Persian Domination): 343-332

Egypt was invaded again and reconquered by the Persians, although at times, they could not fully dominate the entire country.

Artaxerxes III Ochus343-338
Darius III Codomanus336-332

An Egyptian king (of possibly Nubian origin) briefly controlled most of Egypt during the Persian Dynasty XXXI. He was the last native ruler of ancient Egypt:



Macedonian Dynasty: 332-304

Three kings consisting of Alexander the Great, his half-brother, and his son--they never resided in Egypt but governed from Babylon, the capital of Alexander's Macedonian Empire. Alexander was said to have been buried in Alexandria, Egypt. In this period, Egypt was directly administered by the satrap, Ptolemy Lagos, the friend of Alexander who later proclaimed himself king of Egypt.

Alexander (III) the Great332-323
Philip Arrhidaeus323-316
Alexander IV316-304

Ptolemaic Era: 304-30

Dynasty founded by Ptolemy Lagos with its capital at Alexandria. It consisted of 19 kings and queens-regnant, all of pure Macedonian origin; characterized by frequent intermarriage between the king and his sister, often with the queen or queen-mother as coregent ruling with the king. Overweaning ambition and greed in the royal family was the cause of frequent palace coups and assasinations, with kings and despots frequently losing and regaining the throne (all of which tends to confuse the chronology).

Ptolemy I Soter I304-284
Ptolemy II Philadelphus285-246
Ptolemy III Euergetes I246-221
Ptolemy IV Philopator221-205
Ptolemy V Epiphanes205-180
revolt in Upper Egypt:
Ptolemy VI Philometor180-164
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II(jointly, then as userper)170-163
Ptolemy VI Philometor(again!)163-145
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II1(again!)145-116
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator(brief userper)145
revolt in Thebes:
Q. Cleopatra III & Ptolemy IX Soter II116-107
Q. Cleopatra III & Ptolemy X Alexander I107-88
Ptolemy IX Soter II88-81
Ptolemy XI Alexander II & Q. CleopatraBerenike81-80
Ptolemy XI Alexander II80
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysus80-58
Q. Berenike IV58-55
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysus(again!)55-51
Ptolemy XIII & Q. Cleopatra VII51-47
Julius Caesar arrives in Egypt48
Q. Cleopatra VII51-30
Ptolemy XIV & Q. Cleopatra VII47-44
Ptolemy XV Caesarion & Cleopatra VII44-30

Roman Era: 30 B.C. - A.D. 395

Egypt was a consular province of the Roman Empire administered in the name of the Roman emperor by a succession of imperial prefects. They were appointed by the emperor and reported directly to him by-passing the Roman Senate. In Egyptian art, religion and iconography, the Roman emperor assumed the traditional role of pharaoh.